Efficacy Of Mechanical
Compression In Venous

See How Pneumatic Compression Compares in the Key Findings

Over 26 years of studies and thousands of patients in randomized and double-blind studies show the efficacy of mechanical compression for DVT prevention. Studies below reinforce the data that show mechanical compression by itself and used in conjunction with chemoprophylaxis is a leading option for DVT prevention. An option that can reduce bleeding risks, adverse drug events and increase prevention at home post-surgery when the patient is most at risk.

Chibbaro 2018 Neurosurgery pts IPC + LMWH was more effective than ES + LMWH
Frisius 2015 Neurosurgery pts IPC when added to standard prophylaxis during intraoperative and postoperative period was effective.
Woolson 1996 Hip replacement IPC and regional anesthesia were highly effective at preventing proximal DVTs
Eisele 2007 Orthopedic surgery IPC was more effective when added to chemoprophylaxis
Hooker 1999 Hip arthroplasty IPC is as effective as pharmacological prophylaxis
Kurtoglu 2004 Head and spinal trauma IPC was comparable to chemoprophylaxis
Maxwell 2001 Gynaecologic oncology surgery IPC as effective as LMWH
Wang 2018 Major orthopaedic surgery IPC decreases DVT incidence as compared to ES alone
Prell 2019 Neurosurgery - craniotomy IPC reduces VTE incidence as compared to ES
Kwak 2017 Total hip arthroplasty IPC slightly reduced VTE incidence when combined with aspirin
Parry 2017 Esophageal cancer surgery IPC added to LMWH reduced symptomatic VTEs
Clarke-Pearson 1984 Gynaecologic malignancy IPC application intraoperatively and postoperatively significantly reduces DVT incidence
Ginzburg 2003 Trauma IPC comparable to LMWH in DVT prevention, lower bleeding complications
Ramos 1996 Cardiac surgery IPCs added to subcutaneous heparin is more effective
Clarke-Pearson 1993 Gynaecologic oncology IPC is as effective as low dose heparin in DVT prevention; less bleeding complications
Gao 2012 Gynaecological pelvic surgery IPC + GCS was more effective than GCS alone
Bradley 1993 Hip arthroplasty IPC+ heparin more effective than heparin alone
Butson 1981 Abdominal surgery IPC reduced DVT incidence
Edwards 2008 Total hip or knee arthroplasty Significant DVT reduction when IPC combined with LMWH
Fisher 1995 Hip fractures IPCs effective in reducing VTE
Fordyce 1992 Total hip replacement IPCs significantly reduce DVT
Gallus 1983 Total hip replacement IPCs reduced calf vein thrombosis
Hardwick 2011 Total hip replacement IPC is as effective as LMWH in DVT prevention; less bleeding complications
Hills 1972 Malignant disease IPC prevents thromboembolic complications
Hull 1990 Total hip replacement IPC reduced the frequency of proximal and calf vein thrombosis
Kaempffe 1991 Total hip or knee arthroplasty IPC comparable to Coumadin in DVT prevention
Lacut 2005 Acute intracerebral haemorrhage IPC significantly decreases DVT incidence
McKenna 1980 Total knee replacement IPC as effective as high-dose aspirin, more effective than low dose aspirin
Nicolaides 1983 Abdominal surgery IPC as effective as low dose heparin
Santori 1994 Total hip replacement IPC better than heparin in DVT prevention
Silbersack 2004 Total hip or knee arthroplasty IPC + LMWH is better than LMWH + GCS
Stannard 1996 Total hip arthroplasty IPC is superior to heparin/aspirin for DVT prophylaxis
Stone 1996 Total hip replacement IPC comparable to enoxaparin in DVT prevention, less blood transfusion needed.
Stranks 1992 Hemiarthroplasty for hip fracture IPC reduces DVT and postoperative swelling
Ho 2015 Stroke IPC more effective than other non-pharmacological methods
Colwell Jr 2010 Total hip arthroplasty IPC as effective as LMWH foe DVT prevention; less major bleeding events
Pitto 2004 Total hip arthroplasty IPC more effective and safe than LMWH
Windisch 2011 Total knee arthroplasty IPC +LMWH prevented DVT and improved postoperative function
Koo 2014 Knee and spine surgery Alternate and simultaneous sequential compression devices are equally effective
Anglen 1998 Orthopedic trauma Sequential calf compression and intermittent plantar compression are equally effective
Elliott 1999 Trauma Calf thigh SCD is more effective than plantar IPC
Spain 1998 High risk trauma IPCs provide adequate DVT prophylaxis
Gelfer 2006 Total hip or knee arthroplasty IPC more effective than enoxaparin
Chin 2009 Total knee arthroplasty IPC comparable to enoxaparin; less bleeding complications and need for transfusion
Kim 2015 Total hip arthroplasty IPC is sufficient to prevent DVT and PE
Kim 2015 Total knee arthroplasty IPC is sufficient to prevent DVT and PE
Domeij-Arverud 2015 Achilles tendon rupture IPC reduces DVT incidence
*IPC = Intermittent Pneumatic Compression; LMWH = Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin; ES = Elastic stockings; GCS= Graduated Compression Stockings;
SCD = Sequential Compression Devices; DVT = Deep Vein Thrombosis; PE = Pulmonary Embolism; VTE = Venous Thromboembolism

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Consider a Non-Pharma Option

Any surgery over 30 minutes under general anesthesia needs DVT Prevention. Consider a non-pharma option for at home use when you are most at risk.

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#1 Non-Pharma Option for Post Surgery

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1. Chibbaro S, Cebula H, Todeschi J et al. Evolution of Prophylaxis Protocols for Venous Thromboembolism in Neurosurgery: Results from a Prospective Comparative Study on Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin, Elastic Stockings, and Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices. World Neurosurg. 2018;109:e510-e516. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2017.10.012

2. Frisius J, Ebeling M, Karst M et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolic complications with and without intermittent pneumatic compression in neurosurgical cranial procedures using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective analysis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2015;133:46-54. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2015.03.005

3. Woolson S. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Prophylaxis for Proximal Deep Venous Thrombosis after Total tHip Replacement*. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 1996;78(11):1735-40. doi:10.2106/00004623-199611000-00015t

4. Eisele R, Kinzl L, Koelsch T. Rapid-Inflation Intermittent Pneumatic Compression for Prevention of Deep Venous Thrombosis. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 2007;89(5):1050-1056. doi:10.2106/jbjs.e.00434

5. Hooker J, Lachiewicz P, Kelley S. Efficacy of Prophylaxis Against Thromboembolism with Intermittent Pneumatic Compression After Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty*. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 1999;81(5):690-6. doi:10.2106/00004623-199905000-00010

6. Kurtoglu M, Yanar H, Bilsel Y et al. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Head and Spinal Trauma: Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices Versus Low Molecular Weight Heparin. World J Surg. 2004;28(8):807-811. doi:10.1007/s00268-004-7295-6

7. Maxwell GL, Synan I, Dodge R, Carroll B, Clarke-Pearson DL. Pneumatic compression versus low molecular weight heparin in gynecologic oncology surgery: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Dec;98(6):989-95.

8. Wang D, Bao F, Li Q, Teng Y, Li J. Semiautomatic intermittent pneumatic compression device applied to deep vein thrombosis in major orthopedic surgery. Biomed Eng Online. 2018;17(1):78. Published 2018 Jun 15. doi:10.1186/s12938-018-0513-5

9. Prell J, Schenk G, Taute B et al. Reduced risk of venous thromboembolism with the use of intermittent pneumatic compression after craniotomy: a randomized controlled prospective study. J Neurosurg. 2019;130(2):622-628. doi:10.3171/2017.9.jns17533

10. Kwak HS, Cho JH, Kim JT, Yoo JJ, Kim HJ. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism after Total Hip Arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Surg. 2017;9(1):37–42. doi:10.4055/cios.2017.9.1.37

11. Parry K, Sadeghi A, van der Horst S, Westerink J, Ruurda J, van Hillegersberg R. Intermittent pneumatic compression in combination with low-molecular weight heparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolic events in esophageal cancer surgery. J Surg Oncol. 2017;115(2):181-185. doi:10.1002/jso.24480

12. Clarke-Pearson DL, Synan IS, Hinshaw WM, Coleman RE, Creasman WT. Prevention of postoperative venous thromboembolism by external pneumatic calf compression in patients with gynecologic malignancy. Obstet Gynecol 1984;63(1):92 - 8

13. Ginzburg E, Cohn SM, Lopez J, Jackowski J, Brown M, Hameed SM, Miami Deep Vein Thrombosis Study Group. Randomized clinical trial of intermittent pneumatic compression and low molecular weight heparin in trauma. Br J Surg 2003;90(11):1338 - 44

14. Ramos R, Salem BI, De Pawlikowski MP, Coordes C, Eisenberg S, Leidenfrost R. The efficacy of pneumatic compression stockings in the prevention of pulmonary embolism after cardiac surgery. Chest 1996;109(1):82 – 5

15. Clarke-Pearson DL, Synan IS, Dodge R, Soper JT, Berchuck A, Coleman RE. A randomized trial of low-dose heparin and intermittent pneumatic calf compression for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after gynecologic oncology surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168:1146–53. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(93)90360-U.

16. Gao J, Zhang ZY, Li Z, Liu CD, Zhan YX, Qiao BL, Sang CQ, Guo SL, Wang SZ, Jiang Y, Zhao N. Two mechanical methods for thromboembolism prophylaxis after gynaecological pelvic surgery: a prospective, randomised study. Chin Med J (Engl) 2012;125:4259–63. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.2012.23.018

17. Bradley JG, Krugener GH, Jager HJ. The effectiveness of intermittent plantar venous compression in prevention of deep venous thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty.J Arthroplasty. 1993; 8:57–61.

18. Butson AR. Intermittent pneumatic calf compression for prevention of deep venous thrombosis in general abdominal surgery.Am J Surg. 1981; 142:525–527

19. Edwards JZ, Pulido PA, Ezzet KA, Copp SN, Walker RH, Colwell CW. Portable compression device and low-molecular-weight heparin compared with low-molecular-weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis after total joint arthroplasty.J Arthroplasty. 2008; 23:1122–1127.

20. Fisher CG, Blachut PA, Salvian AJ, Meek RN, O’Brien PJ. Effectiveness of pneumatic leg compression devices for the prevention of thromboembolic disease in orthopaedic trauma patients: a prospective, randomized study of compression alone versus no prophylaxis.J Orthop Trauma. 1995; 9:1–7

21. Fordyce MJ, Ling RS. A venous foot pump reduces thrombosis after total hip replacement.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992; 74:45–49

22. Gallus A, Raman K, Darby T. Venous thrombosis after elective hip replacement: the influence of preventive intermittent calf compression and of surgical technique.Br J Surg. 1983

23. Hardwick ME, Pulido PA, Colwell CW. A mobile compression device compared with low-molecular-weight heparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism in total hip arthroplasty.Orthop Nurs. 2011; 30:312–316

24. Hills NH, Pflug JJ, Jeyasingh K, Boardman L, Calnan JS. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis by intermittent pneumatic compression of calf. Br Med J. 1972;1(5793):131–135.

25. Hull RD, Raskob GE, Gent M, McLoughlin D, Julian D, Smith FC, Dale NI, Reed-Davis R, Lofthouse RN, Anderson C. Effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic leg compression for preventing deep vein thrombosis after total hip replacement.JAMA. 1990; 263:2313–2317.

26. Kaempffe FA, Lifeso RM, Meinking C. Intermittent pneumatic compression versus Coumadin: prevention of deep vein thrombosis in lower-extremity total joint arthroplasty.Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991; 269:89–97

27. Lacut K, Bressollette L, Le Gal G, Etienne E, De Tinteniac A, Renault A, Rouhart F, Besson G, Garcia JF, Mottier D, Oger E; VICTORIAh (Venous Intermittent Compression and Thrombosis Occurrence Related to Intra-Cerebral Acute Hemorrhage) Investigators. Prevention of venous thrombosis in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage.Neurology. 2005; 65:865–869

28. McKenna R, Galante J, Bachmann F, Wallace DL, Kaushal PS, Meredith P. Prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee replacement by high-dose aspirin or intermittent calf and thigh compression. Br Med J. 1980;280(6213):514–517.

29. Nicolaides AN, Miles C, Hoare M, Jury P, Helmis E, Venniker R. Intermittent sequential pneumatic compression of the legs and thromboembolism-deterrent stockings in the prevention of postoperative deep venous thrombosis.Surgery. 1983; 94:21–25

30. Santori FS, Vitullo A, Stopponi M, Santori N, Ghera S. Prophylaxis against deep-vein thrombosis in total hip replacement: comparison of heparin and foot impulse pump.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994; 76:579–583

31. Silbersack Y, Taute BM, Hein W, Podhaisky H. Prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after total hip and knee replacement: low-molecular-weight heparin in combination with intermittent pneumatic compression.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004; 86:809–812

32. Stannard JP, Harris RM, Bucknell AL, Cossi A, Ward J, Arrington ED. Prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty by using intermittent compression of the plantar venous plexus.Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 1996; 25:127–134

33. Stone MH, Limb D, Campbell P, Stead D, Culleton G. A comparison of intermittent calf compression and enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in total hip replacement. A pilot study.Int Orthop. 1996; 20:367–369

34. Stranks GJ, MacKenzie NA, Grover ML, Fail T. The A-V Impulse System reduces deep-vein thrombosis and swelling after hemiarthroplasty for hip fracture.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992; 74:775–778

35. Ho K, Harahsheh Y. Intermittent pneumatic compression is effective in reducing proximal DVT. Evidence Based Nursing. 2015;19(2):47-47. doi:10.1136/eb-2015-102265

36. Colwell Jr CW, Froimson MI, Mont MA, et al. Thrombosis prevention after total hip arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized trial comparing a mobile compression device with low-molecular-weight heparin. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010;92:527.

37. Pitto RP, Hamer H, Heiss-Dunlop W, et al. Mechanical prophylaxis of deep-vein thrombosis after total hip replacement a randomised clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg 2004;86:639

38. Windisch C, Kolb W, Kolb K, et al. Pneumatic compression with foot pumps facilitates early postoperative mobilisation in total knee arthroplasty. Int Orthop 2011;35:995

39. Koo KH, Choi JS, Ahn JH, Kwon JH, Cho KT. Comparison of clinical and physiological efficacies of different intermittent sequential pneumatic compression devices in preventing deep vein thrombosis: a prospective randomized study. Clin Orthop Surg. 2014;6(4):468–475. doi:10.4055/cios.2014.6.4.468

40. Anglen JO, Bagby C, George R. A randomized comparison of sequential-gradient calf compression with intermittent plantar compression for prevention of venous thrombosis in orthopedic trauma patients: preliminary results. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 1998;27(1):53-58

41. Elliott CG, Dudney TM, Egger M, et al. Calf-thigh sequential pneumatic compression compared with plantar venous pneumatic compression to prevent deep-vein thrombosis after nonYlower extremity trauma. J Trauma. 1999;47(1):25-32

42. Spain DA, Bergamini TM, Hoffmann JF, Carrillo EH, Richardson JD. Comparison of sequential compression devices and foot pumps for prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis in high-risk trauma patients. Am Surg. 1998;64(6):522

43. Gelfer Y, Tavor H, Oron A, et al. Deep vein thrombosis prevention in joint arthroplasties: continuous enhanced circulation therapy vs low molecular weight heparin. J Arthroplasty. 2006;21:206–214

44. Chin PL, Amin MS, Yang KY, et al. Thromboembolic prophylaxis for total knee arthroplasty in Asian patients: a randomised controlled trial. J Orthop Surg. 2009;17:1–5

45. Kim Y, Kulkarni S, Park J, Kim B. Prevalence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Treated with Mechanical Compression Device after Total Hip Arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2015;30(4):675-680. doi:10.1016/j.arth.2014.11.004

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